In this tutorial we will setup a mail server using
postfix and an email client using
mutt on a Ubuntu system. Initially we will only configure postfix to deliver mail locally and then enhance it to allow sending mails externally via a gmail account.
Mutt is an powerful email client and can be used to receive, read and sent emails directly from the console. Mutt is higly configurable and a sample setup is provided to get started. Mutt can also be used directly in conjuction with gmail to send and receive messages but in this setup we will hand-off the sending of email to postfix so that other applications can also easily send mails to the outside.
Instructions on setting up mutt as a gmail client can be found here
Added debugging and ssl certificate information
The first order of business is to install postfix:
sudo apt-get install postfixUnder
General type of mail configurationselect
Local only. Also, for the system mail name, you can put in
localhost(presuming that you are sending email to @localhost).
By default, your mailbox is located at
Mutt can be installed via the following command:
sudo apt-get install mutt
We will now configure mutt by overwriting the contents of
~/.muttrc. The most important is the
mailboxes property where we have set the inbox to be the one where postfix will deliver mail to.
set from = "Victor Parmar
" set edit_headers = yes set folder = ~/Mail # mailbox location set tmpdir = "/tmp" set record = "+sent" set mbox = "+mbox" set postponed = "+postponed" set wait_key = no # shut up, mutt set mbox_type = Maildir # mailbox type set timeout = 3 # idle time before scanning set mail_check = 0 # minimum time between scans unset move # gmail does that set delete # don't ask, just do unset confirmappend # don't ask, just do! set quit # don't ask, just do!! unset mark_old # read/new is good enough for me set beep_new # bell on new mails set pipe_decode # strip headers and eval mimes when piping set thorough_search # strip headers and eval mimes before searching ignore * # ignore all headers unignore from: to: cc: date: subject: # show only these unhdr_order * # some distros order things by default hdr_order from: to: cc: date: subject: # and in this order set date_format = "%m/%d" set index_format = "[%Z] %D %-20.20F %s" set sort = threads # like gmail set sort_aux = reverse-last-date-received # like gmail set uncollapse_jump # don't collapse on an unread message set sort_re # thread based on regex set reply_regexp = "^(([Rr][Ee]?(\[[0-9]+\])?: *)?(\[[^]]+\] *)?)*"set date_format = "%m/%d" set index_format = "[%Z] %D %-20.20F %s" set sort = threads # like gmail set sort_aux = reverse-last-date-received # like gmail set uncollapse_jump # don't collapse on an unread message set sort_re # thread based on regex set reply_regexp = "^(([Rr][Ee]?(\[[0-9]+\])?: *)?(\[[^]]+\] *)?)*" set sidebar_delim = ' │' set sidebar_visible = yes set sidebar_width = 24 set status_chars = " *%A" set status_format = "───[ Folder: %f ]───[%r%m messages%?n? (%n new)?%?d? (%d to delete)?%?t? (%t tagged)? ]───%>─%?p?( %p postponed )?───" mailboxes /var/mail/vic \ ~/Mail/sent \ set pager_index_lines = 10 # number of index lines to show set pager_context = 3 # number of context lines to show set pager_stop # don't go to next message automatically set menu_scroll # scroll in menus set tilde # show tildes like in vim unset markers # no ugly plus signs push
If you are feeling adventurous and already have some experience with mutt you can check out various other configurations such as this, this and this. There's also a web application which allows you to build your own muttrc: http://muttrcbuilder.org/!
Fire up mutt via the following:
muttAnd voila, you have a fresh new email client!
For the most part, ? will open up a help window with the available commands and the top bar also indicates common actions, but nevertheless here are some useful commands:
At this point sending and receiving local mail should be working and can be tested via the following python script:
import smtplib import string SUBJECT = "Test email" TO = "vic@localhost" # change to your username FROM = "python@localhost" text = "blah blah blah" BODY = string.join(( "From: %s" % FROM, "To: %s" % TO, "Subject: %s" % SUBJECT, "", text ), "\r\n") server = smtplib.SMTP('localhost') server.sendmail(FROM, TO,BODY) server.quit()Running mutt after executing the above script should show an email from
python@localhostin your inbox.
We will now configure postfix to use gmail's SMTP service to send emails. Note that you will need a gmail account and will also be storing the password for this account as cleartext in a root protected file.
Assuming postfix has already been installed, we will need to install the other required modules:
sudo apt-get install mailutils libsasl2-2 ca-certificates libsasl2-modules
/etc/postfix/main.cf and add the following configuration:
relayhost = [smtp.gmail.com]:587 smtp_sasl_auth_enable = yes smtp_sasl_password_maps = hash:/etc/postfix/sasl_passwd smtp_sasl_security_options = noanonymous smtp_tls_CAfile = /etc/ssl/certs/ca-certificates.crt smtp_use_tls = yes
Make sure that the the following settings are also correctly set:
#inet_interfaces = loopback-only inet_interfaces = all #default_transport = error
For additional logging add the following lines:
Add your gmail credentials in
Fix permissions and update postfix config to use
sudo chmod 400 /etc/postfix/sasl_passwd sudo postmap /etc/postfix/sasl_passwd
Restart postfix for the changes to take effect:
sudo service postfix restart
By default, only the most secure sign-ins, such as logging in to Gmail on the web, are allowed for your Gmail account. To permit relay requests, log in to your Gmail account and turn on Allow less secure apps.
Testing the relay service can be done via the following:
mail -s "Test subject" email@example.comLogin to gmail and verify that the test email is present in the sent folder. Note that the sender email always overwritten with the account email whose credentials were provided in
sasl_passwdno matter what is provided in the header.
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